ormulation technology for stabilized lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs)

This was largely made possible by major advances in the formulation technology for stabilized lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs). Design of the cationic ionizable lipids, which are a key component of the LNP formulations, with an acid dissociation constant (pKa) close to the early endosomal pH, would not only ensure effective encapsulation of mRNA into the stabilized lipoplexes within the LNPs, but also its subsequent endosomal release into the cytoplasm after endocytosis.
Unlike other gene therapy modalities, which require nuclear delivery, the site of action for exogenous mRNA vaccines is the cytosol where they get translated into antigenic proteins and thereby elicit an immune response. LNPs also protect the mRNA against enzymatic degradation by the omnipresent ribonucleases (RNases). Cationic nano emulsion (CNE) is also explored as an alternative and relatively thermostable mRNA vaccine delivery vehicle.
In this review, we have summarized the various delivery strategies explored for more details joplink Recombinant Human Serine  mRNA vaccines, including naked mRNA injection; ex vivo loading of dendritic cells; CNE; cationic peptides; cationic polymers, and finally the clinically successful COVID-19 LNP vaccines  (Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines)-their components, design principles, formulation parameter optimization, and stabilization challenges. Despite the clinical success of LNP-mRNA vaccine formulations, there is a specific need to enhance their storage stability above 0 °C for these lifesaving vaccines to reach the developing.

Understanding the role of microperimetry in glaucoma

The present narrative review attempts to provide an overview on the use of microperimetry or fundus-driven perimetry in glaucoma, considering the clinical use, the different strategies and limits compared to standard automated perimetry.
 An electronic database (PubMed and Medline) search was performed of articles of any type published in the English language between 1998 and 2020 with a combination of the following terms: microperimetry, glaucoma, primary open-angle chronic glaucoma, visual field, Humphrey visual field, fundus automated perimetry.
All the original articles, case reports, and short series analyzed were included in the present review, offering an excursus on the strengths and limitations characterizing the use of microperimetry in glaucomatous patients. The characteristics of a recently introduced fundus-driven perimetry Compass (CMP; Centervue, Padua, Italy) were also included.
Although there remain several contradictions regarding routine use of microperimetry and the restricted research on this topic limits our ability to draw firm conclusions, microperimetry may be preferable in cases of localized retinal nerve fiber layer defects in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and normal visual field. However, standard automated perimetry remains the gold standard for monitoring glaucoma, especially in patients with diffuse retinal nerve fiber layer impairment and visual field defects. The newly introduced Compass device can potentially provide a more accurate structural-functional evaluation than standard automated perimetry and can therefore produce superior testing reliability.

Ligand-Directed GPCR Antibody Discovery

Developing affinity reagents recognizing and modulating G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) function by traditional animal immunization or in vitro screening methods is challenging. Some anti-GPCR antibodies exist on the market, but the success rate of development is still poor compared with antibodies targeting soluble or peripherally anchored proteins.

  • More importantly, most of these antibodies do not modulate GPCR function. The current pipeline for antibody development primarily screens for overall affinity rather than functional epitope recognition. We developed a new strategy utilizing natural ligand affinity to generate a library of antibody variants with an inherent bias toward the active site of the GPCR.
  • Instead of using phage libraries displaying antibodies with random CDR sequences at polymorphism sites observed in natural immune repertoire sequences, we generated focused antibody libraries with a natural ligand encoded within or conjugated to one of the CDRs or the N-terminus.
  • To tailor antibody binding to the active site, we limited the sequence randomization of the antibody in regions holstering the ligand while leaving the ligand-carrying part unaltered in the first round of randomization. With hits from the successful first round, the second round of randomization of the ligand-carrying part was then performed to eliminate the bias of the ligand.
  • Based on our results on three different GPCR targets, the proposed pipeline will enable the rapid generation of functional antibodies (both agonists and antagonists) against high-value targets with poor function epitope exposures including GPCR, channels, transporters as well as cell surface targets whose binding site is heavily masked by glycosylation.

endohedral trihedral metallo-borospherenes with spherical aromaticity

It is well-known that transition-metal-doping induces dramatic changes in the structures and bonding of small boron clusters, as demonstrated by the newly observed perfect inverse sandwich D8h [La(η8-B8)La] and D9h [La(η9-B9)La]. Based on extensive global minimum searches and first-principles theory calculations, we predict herein the possibility of perfect endohedral trihedral metallo-borospherene D3h La@[La5&B30] (1, 3A’1) and its monoanion Cs La@[La5&B30] (2, 2A’) and dianion D3h La@[La5&B30]2- (3, 1A’1).

These La-doped boron clusters are composed of three inverse sandwich La(η8-B8)La on the waist and two inverse sandwich La(η9-B9)La on the top and bottom which share one apex La atom at the center and six periphery B2 units between neighboring η8-B8 and η9-B9 rings, with three octo-coordinate La atoms and two nona-coordinate La atoms as integrated parts of the cage surface.

Detailed adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP) and iso-chemical shielding surface (ICSS) analyses indicate that La@[La5&B30]0/-/2- (1/2/3) are spherically aromatic in nature. The one-dimensional nanowire La4B21 (4, Pm) constructed from D3h La@[La5&B30] (1) along the C3 axis of the system appears to be metallic. The IR and Raman spectra of La@[La5&B30] (1) and photoelectron spectroscopy of the slightly distorted Cs La@[La5&B30] (2) are theoretically simulated to facilitate their spectroscopic characterizations.

Towards the saving of global rainforests

Rainforests are the Earth’s largest terrestrial carbon sinks and are rapidly shrinking due to unprecedented human impact, especially tropical rainforests, which host ~50% of global biodiversity. Understanding what makes rainforests resilient on a long-term basis is key to preserving global rainforests and their ecological services.
Here, using estimates of rates-of-change (RoC) in fossil pollen records, an indicator for temporal compositional change (turnover) in vegetation, we show that accelerating trends in global rainforest changes (increasing RoC/turnover) during the last 12,000 years were mainly driven by intensive agricultural practices, and the highly diverse and productive tropical rainforests were the most impacted.
Management/conservation strategies aimed at the effective management of human impact will help promote rainforest health and diversity and increase resilience under projected climate change.

Serine Racemase (Recombinant)

  • 230.00 EUR
  • 1483.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 1 µg
  • 50 ug
  • 5 ug

SRR Serine Racemase Human Recombinant Protein

Regular: 5ug 317 EUR

Recombinant human Thymus-specific serine protease

100ug Ask for price

Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (Recombinant)

  • 3418.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 230.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 20 ug
  • 5 ug

Protease Serine 3 (Recombinant)

  • 3418.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 230.00 EUR
  • 1 mg
  • 20 ug
  • 5 ug

Serine Dehydratase-Like (Recombinant)

  • 328.00 EUR
  • 6397.00 EUR
  • 230.00 EUR
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 2 µg

PRSS7 Protease Serine 7 Human Recombinant Protein

Regular: 20ug 317 EUR

SDSL Serine Dehydratase-Like Human Recombinant Protein

Regular: 10ug 317 EUR

SHMT1 Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase 1 Human Recombinant Protein

Regular: 20ug 317 EUR

PRSS3 Protease Serine 3 Human Recombinant Protein

Regular: 20ug 317 EUR

Fusogenic Viral Protein-Based Near-Infrared Active Nanocarriers for Biomedical

As a proof of concept, we bioengineered the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-based near-infrared (NIR) active viral nanoconstructs (NAVNs) encapsulating indocyanine green dye (ICG) for NIR bioimaging.

NAVNs are spherical in size and have the intrinsic cellular-fusogenic properties of VSV-G. Further, the NIR imaging displaying higher fluorescence intensity in NAVNs treated cells suggests enhanced cellular uptake and delivery of ICG by NAVNs compared to the free form of ICG and for more information than visit joplink recombinant human to highlights. The overall study highlights the effectiveness of VSV-G-based VNPs as an efficient delivery system for NIR fluorescence imaging.

Phosphorylation of Trans-active response DNA binding protein-of 43 kDa promotes its cytoplasmic aggregation and modulates its function in tau mRNA stability and exon 10 alternative splicing

Trans-active response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) promotes tau mRNA instability and tau exon 10 inclusion. Aggregation of phosphorylated TDP-43 is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). CK1ε phosphorylates TDP-43 at multiple sites, enhances its cytoplasmic aggregation and modu-lates its function in tau mRNA processing.

To determine roles of TDP-43 site-specific phos-phorylation in its localization, aggregation, and function in tau mRNA processing, TDP-43 was mutated to alanine or aspartic acid at Ser379, Ser403/404, or Ser409/410 to block or mimic phosphorylation. Site-specific phosphorylation of TDP-43 and its mutants by CK1ε was studied in vitro and in cultured cells. Cytoplasmic and nuclear TDP-43 and phospho-TDP-43 were analyzed by Western blots.

Aggregation of TDP-43 was assessed by immunostaining and level of RIPA-insoluble TDP-43. GFP tailed with tau 3′-UTR and mini-tau gene pCI/SI9-LI10 were used to study tau mRNA stability and alternative splicing of tau exon 10. We found that phospho-blocking mutations of TDP-43 at Ser379, Ser403/404, or Ser409/410 were not effectively phosphorylated by CK1ε.

Compared with TDP-43, higher level of phosphorylated TDP-43 in the cytoplasm was observed. Phospho-mimicking mutations at these sites enhanced cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43. GFP expression was not inhibited by phospho-blocking mutants of TDP-43, but tau exon 10 inclusion was further enhanced by phospho-blocking mutations at Ser379 and Ser403/404. Phosphorylation of TDP-43 at Ser379, Ser 403/404 or Ser409/410 primes its phosphorylation by CK1ε, promotes TDP-43 cytoplasmic aggregation and modulates its function in tau mRNA processing in site-specific manner.

Oncogenic mutations Q61L and Q61H confer active form-like structural features to the inactive state (state 1) conformation of H-Ras protein

GTP-bound forms of Ras proteins (Ras•GTP) assume two interconverting conformations, “inactive” state 1 and “active” state 2. Our previous study on the crystal structure of the state 1 conformation of H-Ras in complex with guanosine 5′-(β, γ-imido)triphosphate (GppNHp) indicated that state 1 is stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions formed by Gln61. Since Ras are constitutively activated by substitution mutations of Gln61, here we determine crystal structures of the state 1 conformation of H-Ras•GppNHp carrying representative mutations Q61L and Q61H to observe the effect of the mutations.

The results show that these mutations alter the mode of hydrogen-bonding interactions of the residue 61 with Switch II residues and induce conformational destabilization of the neighboring regions. In particular, Q61L mutation results in acquirement of state 2-like structural features. Moreover, the mutations are likely to impair an intramolecular structural communication between Switch I and Switch II. Molecular dynamics simulations starting from these structures support the above observations. These findings may give a new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the aberrant activation of the Gln61 mutants.

Effect of Active Coatings Containing Lippa citriodora Kunth. Essential Oil on Bacterial Diversity and Myofibrillar Proteins Degradation in Refrigerated Large Yellow Croaker

The research evaluated the effects of locust bean gum (LBG) and sodium alginate (SA) active coatings containing 0.15, 0.30 or 0.60% lemon verbena (Lippa citriodora Kunth.) essential oil (LVEO) on the bacterial diversity and myofibrillar proteins (MPs) of large yellow croaker during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 18 days. Variability in the dominant bacterial community in different samples on the 0, 9th and 18th day was observed.

. Pseudomonas and Shewanella were the two major genera identified during refrigerated storage. At the beginning, the richness of Pseudomonas was about 37.31% and increased for control (CK) samples during refrigerated storage, however, the LVEO-treated samples increased sharply from day 0 to the 9th day and then decreased.

LBG-SA coatings containing LVEO treatments significantly delayed MPs oxidation by retarding the formation of free carbonyl compounds and maintaining higher sulfhydryl content, higher Ca2+-ATPase activity, better organized secondary (higher contents of α-helix and β-sheet) and tertiary structures during refrigerated storage.

The transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the integrity of the sarcomere was damaged; the boundaries of the H-, A-, and I-bands, Z-disk, and M-line were fuzzy in the CK samples at the end of storage. However, the LVEO-treated samples were still regular in appearance with distinct dark A-bands, light I-bands, and Z-disk. In brief, LBG-SA active coatings containing LVEO treatments suggested a feasible method for protecting the MPs of large yellow croaker during refrigerated storage.

Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins of Bougainvillea glabra Uncovered Polymorphism and Active Site Divergence

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are toxic proteins that can inhibit protein synthesis. RIPs purified from Bougainvillea have low nonspecific toxicity, showing promise for processing applications in the agricultural and medical fields. However, systematic research on the polymorphism of Bougainvillea RIPs is lacking, and it is worth exploring whether different isoforms differ in their active characteristics. The transcriptional and translational expression of type I RIPs in Bougainvillea glabra leaves was investigated in this study. Seven RIPs exhibited seasonal variation at both the mRNA and protein levels.

The isoforms BI4 and BI6 showed the highest transcriptional expression in both the summer and autumn samples. Interestingly, BI6 was not detected in the protein level in any of the samples. However, the bioinformatics analysis showed that RIPs derived from the same species were gathered in a different cluster, and that the active sites changed among the isoforms during evolution.

The significant discrepancy in Bougainvillea RIPs mainly locates at both termini of the amino acid sequence, particularly at the C terminus. Post-translational modifications may also exist in Bougainvillea RIPs. It is concluded that the reason for the polymorphism of Bougainvillea RIPs may be that these proteins are encoded by multiple genes due to genetic processes such as gene duplication and mutation. According to the results of sequence analysis, the possible functional differences of B. glabra RIP isoforms are discussed with regard to the observed discrepancy in both active sites and structures.

 

Mouse Complement Component 5a Receptor 1 (C5aR1) ELISA Kit

48 Tests 511 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 5a Receptor 1 (C5aR1) ELISA Kit

96 Tests 709 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 5a Receptor 1 (C5aR1) ELISA Kit

48T 508 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 5a Receptor 1 (C5aR1) ELISA Kit

96T 661 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 5a Receptor 1 (C5aR1) ELISA Kit

48 Tests 534 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 5a Receptor 1 (C5aR1) ELISA Kit

96 Tests 742 EUR

C5AR1 Recombinant Protein (Human)

100 ug Ask for price

C5AR1 Recombinant Protein (Mouse)

100 ug Ask for price

C5AR1 Recombinant Protein (Mouse)

100 ug Ask for price

C5AR1 Recombinant Protein (Rat)

100 ug Ask for price

Argentina’s Local Crop Biotechnology Developments: Why Have They Not Reached the Market Yet?

Argentina's Local Crop Biotechnology Developments: Why Have They Not Reached the Market Yet?

Plant biotechnology in Argentina started at the end of the 1980s, leading to the development of numerous research groups in public institutions and, a decade later, to some local private initiatives. The numerous scientific and technological capacities existing in the country allowed the early constitution in 1991 of a sound genetically modified organisms biosafety regulatory system.

The first commercial approvals began in 1996, and to date, 59 events have obtained permits to be placed on the market, however, only two have been developed locally by public-private partnerships. The transgenic events developed at public institutions pursue different objectives in diverse crops.

However, once these events have been developed in laboratories, it is difficult to move toward a possible commercial approval. In this work, we analyze several reasons that could explain why local developments have not reached approvals for commercialization, highlighting aspects related to the lack of strategic vision in the institutions to focus resources on projects to develop biotechnological products.

Although progress has been made in generating regulatory rules adapted to research institutes (such as the regulations for biosafety greenhouses and ways of presenting applications), researchers still do not conceive regulatory science as a discipline. They generally prefer not to be involved in the design of regulatory field trials or regulatory issues related to the evaluation of events. In that sense, some of the aspects considered a regulatory affairs platform for the public scientific system and the reinforcement of laboratories that perform tests required under the Argentine regulation.

Argentina's Local Crop Biotechnology Developments: Why Have They Not Reached the Market Yet?
Argentina’s Local Crop Biotechnology Developments: Why Have They Not Reached the Market Yet?

Role of Business Models in Funding the Biotech Industry: Global Trends and Challenges for Cuban Biotechnology.

Forty-three years after it was founded, with billions of dollars invested, the global biotech industry is still not positioned as a mature low-risk sector for the international investor com-munity.

Despite the clear commercial success of a number of leading companies and overall growth of the industry’s rev-enues, most biotech companies are not profi table and many fail to overcome the formidable barrier constituted by the high cost of the sector’s research and development. However, over the last four years, visible signs of change have appeared, which could be harbingers of an approaching turning point in this trend.

This article analyzes the historic background of the biotech in-dustry’s business models and corporate structures, as well as their impact on the industry’s fi nancial framework. It examines recent changes implemented by the sector’s main actors-in-cluding young startups, venture capital funds and big pharma companies-to mitigate fi nancial risk associated with develop-ment of new biotechnology products.

EGTA

GE7249-10G 10 g
EUR 52

EGTA

GE7249-25G 25 g
EUR 70

EGTA

GE7249-50G 50 g
EUR 98

EGTA

abx082266-5g 5 g
EUR 189

EGTA

abx082565-5g 5 g
EUR 189

EGTA

B7195-1000 1 g
EUR 106

EGTA-AM

HY-D0973 5mg
EUR 587

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-100G 100 g
EUR 181

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-10G 10 g
EUR 61

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-250G 250 g
EUR 333

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-25G 25 g
EUR 84

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-50G 50 g
EUR 120

EGTA AM *CAS 99590-86-0*

21005 10 mg
EUR 176

EGTA AM *10 mM DMSO solution*

21006 1 mL
EUR 176

EGTA tetrasodium salt *CAS 13368-13-3*

21007 1 g
EUR 115

EGTA tetrasodium salt *10 mM aqueous solution*

21008 10 mL
EUR 115

2xRIPA Buffer IIII with EDTA and EGTA (pH 7.4) 2xconcentrate

RB4477 500ml
EUR 71.75

Finally, it discusses the challenges and opportunities that these tendencies entail for Cuban biotechnology development and proposes adoption of business policies more tolerant of the fi nancial risk inherent in this sector, as a condition for at-tracting venture capital. KEYWORDS Biotechnology, fund raising, risk management, entrepreneurship, Cuba.