Argentina’s Local Crop Biotechnology Developments: Why Have They Not Reached the Market Yet?

Argentina's Local Crop Biotechnology Developments: Why Have They Not Reached the Market Yet?

Plant biotechnology in Argentina started at the end of the 1980s, leading to the development of numerous research groups in public institutions and, a decade later, to some local private initiatives. The numerous scientific and technological capacities existing in the country allowed the early constitution in 1991 of a sound genetically modified organisms biosafety regulatory system.

The first commercial approvals began in 1996, and to date, 59 events have obtained permits to be placed on the market, however, only two have been developed locally by public-private partnerships. The transgenic events developed at public institutions pursue different objectives in diverse crops.

However, once these events have been developed in laboratories, it is difficult to move toward a possible commercial approval. In this work, we analyze several reasons that could explain why local developments have not reached approvals for commercialization, highlighting aspects related to the lack of strategic vision in the institutions to focus resources on projects to develop biotechnological products.

Although progress has been made in generating regulatory rules adapted to research institutes (such as the regulations for biosafety greenhouses and ways of presenting applications), researchers still do not conceive regulatory science as a discipline. They generally prefer not to be involved in the design of regulatory field trials or regulatory issues related to the evaluation of events. In that sense, some of the aspects considered a regulatory affairs platform for the public scientific system and the reinforcement of laboratories that perform tests required under the Argentine regulation.

Argentina's Local Crop Biotechnology Developments: Why Have They Not Reached the Market Yet?
Argentina’s Local Crop Biotechnology Developments: Why Have They Not Reached the Market Yet?

Role of Business Models in Funding the Biotech Industry: Global Trends and Challenges for Cuban Biotechnology.

Forty-three years after it was founded, with billions of dollars invested, the global biotech industry is still not positioned as a mature low-risk sector for the international investor com-munity.

Despite the clear commercial success of a number of leading companies and overall growth of the industry’s rev-enues, most biotech companies are not profi table and many fail to overcome the formidable barrier constituted by the high cost of the sector’s research and development. However, over the last four years, visible signs of change have appeared, which could be harbingers of an approaching turning point in this trend.

This article analyzes the historic background of the biotech in-dustry’s business models and corporate structures, as well as their impact on the industry’s fi nancial framework. It examines recent changes implemented by the sector’s main actors-in-cluding young startups, venture capital funds and big pharma companies-to mitigate fi nancial risk associated with develop-ment of new biotechnology products.

EGTA

ED0077 25g
EUR 87.14

EGTA

E440150 100g
EUR 119
Description: 67-42-5

EGTA

B7195-1000 1 g
EUR 39
Description: Calcium chelator

EGTA

A2506-100G 100G
EUR 138.6
Description: Ultra Pure

EGTA

A2506-10G 10G
EUR 26.4
Description: Ultra Pure

EGTA

A2506-25G 25G
EUR 46.2
Description: Ultra Pure

EGTA

GE7249-10 10
EUR 22.1

EGTA

GE7249-100 100
EUR 118.7

EGTA

GE7249-100G 100 g
EUR 180

EGTA

GE7249-10G 10 g
EUR 62.4

EGTA

GE7249-25 25
EUR 39.4

EGTA

GE7249-25G 25 g
EUR 84

EGTA

GE7249-50 50
EUR 67.2

EGTA

GE7249-50G 50 g
EUR 117.6

EGTA

T4585-10mg 10mg Ask for price
Description: EGTA

EGTA

T4585-1g 1g Ask for price
Description: EGTA

EGTA

T4585-1mg 1mg Ask for price
Description: EGTA

EGTA

T4585-50mg 50mg Ask for price
Description: EGTA

EGTA

T4585-5mg 5mg Ask for price
Description: EGTA

EGTA

abx082266-100l 100 µl
EUR 125

EGTA

abx082266-1ml 1 ml Ask for price

EGTA

abx082266-200l 200 µl Ask for price

EGTA

abx082565-100l 100 µl
EUR 125

EGTA

abx082565-1ml 1 ml Ask for price

EGTA

abx082565-200l 200 µl Ask for price

EGTA 99%

E00340 10G
EUR 228.91

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-10 10
EUR 30.9

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-100 100
EUR 150.4

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-100G 100 g
EUR 217.2

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-10G 10 g
EUR 73.2

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-25 25
EUR 53.8

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-250 250
EUR 300.5

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-250G 250 g
EUR 399.6

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-25G 25 g
EUR 100.8

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-50 50
EUR 89.3

EGTA, 99%

GE9981-50G 50 g
EUR 144

EGTA-AM

HY-D0973 5mg
EUR 704.4

EGTA-AM

T13673-10mg 10mg Ask for price
Description: EGTA-AM

EGTA-AM

T13673-1g 1g Ask for price
Description: EGTA-AM

EGTA-AM

T13673-1mg 1mg Ask for price
Description: EGTA-AM

EGTA-AM

T13673-50mg 50mg Ask for price
Description: EGTA-AM

EGTA-AM

T13673-5mg 5mg Ask for price
Description: EGTA-AM

EGTA 100mM, pH 7.4, Sterile

40120129-1 50 mL
EUR 38.95

EGTA 100mM, pH 7.4, Sterile

40120129-2 100 mL
EUR 49.81

EGTA 100mM, pH 7.4, Sterile

40120129-3 250 mL
EUR 96.89

EGTA, Hi-LR™

GRM1530-10G 1 unit
EUR 33.64
Description: EGTA, Hi-LR™

EGTA, Hi-LR™

GRM1530-25G 1 unit
EUR 73.94
Description: EGTA, Hi-LR™

RIPA Buffer with EGTA

42020012-1 250 mL
EUR 39.56

RIPA Buffer with EGTA

42020012-2 500 mL
EUR 74.96

EGTA, Molecular Biology Grade

40500028-2 50 g
EUR 106.43

EGTA, Molecular Biology Grade

40500028-3 100 g
EUR 177.58

EGTA, Molecular Biology Grade

40500028-4 500 g
EUR 603.19

EGTA, Molecular Biology Grade

40500028-5 1 kg
EUR 912.98

EGTA, Molecular Biology Grade

40500028-6 2 kg
EUR 1687.94

EGTA 1M, pH 7.4, Sterile

40120127-1 50 mL
EUR 45.36

EGTA 1M, pH 7.4, Sterile

40120127-2 100 mL
EUR 66.59

EGTA 1M, pH 7.4, Sterile

40120127-3 500 mL
EUR 336.81

EGTA 1M, pH 8.0, Sterile

40120128-1 50 mL
EUR 45.36

EGTA 1M, pH 8.0, Sterile

40120128-2 100 mL
EUR 66.59

EGTA 1M, pH 8.0, Sterile

40120128-3 500 mL
EUR 336.81

EGTA 0.5M, pH 7.4, Sterile

40120370-1 50 mL
EUR 37.64

EGTA 0.5M, pH 7.4, Sterile

40120370-2 100 mL
EUR 66.11

EGTA 0.5M, pH 7.4, Sterile

40120370-3 250 mL
EUR 112.92

EGTA 0.5M, pH 7.4, Sterile

40120370-4 1 L
EUR 375.43

EGTA 0.5M, pH 8.0, Sterile

40520008-1 50 mL
EUR 38.95

EGTA 0.5M, pH 8.0, Sterile

40520008-2 100 mL
EUR 66.11

EGTA 0.5M, pH 8.0, Sterile

40520008-3 250 mL
EUR 112.92

EGTA 0.5M, pH 8.0, Sterile

40520008-4 1 L
EUR 375.43

MOPS Buffer with EGTA 10X

40120884-1 100 mL
EUR 33.86

MOPS Buffer with EGTA 10X

40120884-2 500 mL
EUR 85.98

RIPA Buffer with EDTA & EGTA

42020008-1 250 mL
EUR 39.56

RIPA Buffer with EDTA & EGTA

42020008-2 500 mL
EUR 65.37

EGTA AM *CAS 99590-86-0*

21005-10mg 10 mg
EUR 166
Description: EGTA AM is cell-permeable version of EGTA (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid), a cell-permeable calcium chelator.

EGTA AM *10 mM DMSO solution*

21006-1mL 1 mL
EUR 166
Description: EGTA AM is cell-permeable version of EGTA (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid), a cell-permeable calcium chelator.

MOPS Buffer with EGTA 10X, Sterile

40120885-1 100 mL
EUR 37.73

MOPS Buffer with EGTA 10X, Sterile

40120885-2 500 mL
EUR 111.42

EGTA tetrasodium salt *CAS 13368-13-3*

21007-1g 1 g
EUR 86
Description: EGTA (1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) is a water-soluble and cell-impermeable calcium chelator.

EGTA tetrasodium salt *10 mM aqueous solution*

21008-10mL 10 mL
EUR 86
Description: EGTA (1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) is a water-soluble and cell-impermeable calcium chelator.

Paraformaldehyde (4%) Fixative in PBS with Mg and EGTA

30450001-1 250 mL
EUR 29.99

Paraformaldehyde (4%) Fixative in PBS with Mg and EGTA

30450001-2 500 mL
EUR 53.99

2xRIPA Buffer IIII with EDTA and EGTA (pH 7.4) 2xconcentrate

RB4477 500ml
EUR 86.1

Egtazic acid

463846 50.0mg Ask for price

Bexgliflozin (EGT1442)

B1929-1 each
EUR 170.4

Bexgliflozin (EGT1442)

B1929-5 each
EUR 496.8

EGTT-Scavenger for GSH/GSSG Assays (EGTT-100)

EGTT-SCVG 100
EUR 89

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtD Protein (aa 1-321)

VAng-Yyj4655-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 5091.6
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Histidine-specific methyltransferase EgtD (egtD), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtD Protein (aa 1-321)

VAng-Yyj4655-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 3606
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Histidine-specific methyltransferase EgtD (egtD), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtD Protein (aa 1-321)

VAng-Yyj4655-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2469.6
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Histidine-specific methyltransferase EgtD (egtD), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtB Protein (aa 1-428)

VAng-Yyj4891-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 5900.4
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Iron (II)-dependent oxidoreductase EgtB, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtB Protein (aa 1-428)

VAng-Yyj4891-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 4167.6
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Iron (II)-dependent oxidoreductase EgtB, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtB Protein (aa 1-428)

VAng-Yyj4891-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2848.8
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Iron (II)-dependent oxidoreductase EgtB, recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtC Protein (aa 1-227)

VAng-Yyj4892-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 4365.6
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Amidohydrolase EgtC (egtC), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtC Protein (aa 1-227)

VAng-Yyj4892-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 3129.6
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Amidohydrolase EgtC (egtC), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtC Protein (aa 1-227)

VAng-Yyj4892-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2122.8
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Amidohydrolase EgtC (egtC), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtE Protein (aa 1-371)

VAng-Yyj4893-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 5470.8
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent protein EgtE (egtE), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtE Protein (aa 1-371)

VAng-Yyj4893-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 3870
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent protein EgtE (egtE), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Mycobacterium Smegmatis egtE Protein (aa 1-371)

VAng-Yyj4893-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2650.8
Description: Mycobacterium Smegmatis (strain ATCC 700084 / mc(2)155) Pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent protein EgtE (egtE), recombinant protein.

Recombinant Echinococcus Granulosus EgTrpA Protein (aa 1-278)

VAng-Ly4003-1mgEcoli 1 mg (E. coli)
EUR 4761.6
Description: Echinococcus Granulosus tropomyosin A (EgTrpA), recombination protein.

Recombinant Echinococcus Granulosus EgTrpA Protein (aa 1-278)

VAng-Ly4003-500gEcoli 500 µg (E. coli)
EUR 3376.8
Description: Echinococcus Granulosus tropomyosin A (EgTrpA), recombination protein.

Recombinant Echinococcus Granulosus EgTrpA Protein (aa 1-278)

VAng-Ly4003-50gEcoli 50 µg (E. coli)
EUR 2304
Description: Echinococcus Granulosus tropomyosin A (EgTrpA), recombination protein.

Finally, it discusses the challenges and opportunities that these tendencies entail for Cuban biotechnology development and proposes adoption of business policies more tolerant of the fi nancial risk inherent in this sector, as a condition for at-tracting venture capital. KEYWORDS Biotechnology, fund raising, risk management, entrepreneurship, Cuba.